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Order now. Hi there! Are you interested in getting a customized paper? Check it out! Having trouble finding the perfect essay? Hire a writer. On the other hand, there are personal predilections among administrators which also limit decision-making. Decision-making in any large-scale organization is a co-operative effort; it is a collective activity in which all levels in administration participate.
One individual may pronounce the decision, but many contribute to the process of reaching the decision.
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It is a part of the political system. Although the announcement about a decision may come from a particular individual in the administration, it should be remembered that decisions are not arrived at as quickly and as speedily as lightning makes its frightening sound in the cloudy sky. Decisions are the product of long deliberations to which many people and agencies participate.
This is because of the fact that in the final analysis, it is he who has to own the burden of responsibility of the consequences of a particular decision. As he rises up ladder, his functions decrease but his responsibility increases. As it is he alone who can see the enterprise as a whole, the power of final decision-making must rest with him.
There are no fixed bases, nor there can be any, for decision-making. Much depends on the nature of decision to be taken and the nature of agency taking it. Of course, all decisions must be taken rationally and not emotionally or impulsively. Seckler-Hudson provides a list of twelve factors which must be considered in decision-making:. We can only lay down one criterion, i. In other words, bias or predilection should not enter in decision-making. Merits of the case should be the sole basis on which a decision should rest. There are no universally accepted techniques of decision-making except that the problem should be carefully analyzed, studied and investigated before taking a decision on it.
In fact, decision-making is a practical experience and can be learnt by actually taking to it.
Rational Decision Making Model Essay
One cannot learn music by reading literature on music alone. He has to take to practice on the instruments before he is able to produce the melodious notes. Similarly, the techniques of decision-making cannot be learnt by reading literature on the subject alone; it has to be practiced. A decision brilliantly conceived may be worthless without effective implementation.
It is revealed through a study of decision-making in public or business enterprises that routine takes too much of time with the result that decisions are either avoided or postponed.
Decision Theory Essays (Examples)
They were to communicate to relevant clerks information on the current inventory levels in various warehouses. They were to make any necessary reassignments of warehouses to groups of clerks so as to maintain an approximately equal work load in each group. They were to suggest any other changes in procedure that might be appropriate. The subjects were told that each of the three jobs was equally important and should be given equal attention. As the work load varied, we observed the proportion of communications dealing with routine activities as opposed to planning activities by the subjects.
First, despite instructions to spend only one- third of the time on routine matters, subjects spent a good deal more than that even when the work load was relatively light. Second, consistently as the work load increased, subjects spent a small proportion of their total time on planning activities. At peak loads, virtually no planning was evidenced. The second problem of decision-making is which problem should be solved first. It is usually seen that in a large-scale organisation, there are several problems, each looking more urgent than the other. The administrator finds it extremely difficult to determine the priority of these problems.
Sometimes, the problems are very heavy as in the case of planners of our country who have to determine priorities of various demands within the limited resources. Should there be more schools, hospitals or more industries and projects? These are the problems which not only take much of their time but also create a constant worry in them. The whole procedure is circumlocutory and dilatory and it checks quick decisions. Even after all these formalities are complete, there is no certainty that the decision arrived at is a right decision. In the words of P. But the right decision must meet a higher test.
Nothing short of this will do.
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This is because of the nature of bias. What is bias? Prejudice is an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed before taking a decision without knowledge of reason. Predilection is a mental preference of a favourable predisposition towards a particular issue or matter or person. Both are irrational and may occur consciously or unconsciously. Bias is conscious or deliberate when an individual or an agency willingly develops it as part of policy; it is unconscious when it develops without the willing response from the individual or agency.
There can develop a general bias also as most of us have developed against the police in our country. Bias should not be confused with unethical acts such as favouritism, corruption, nepotism, etc. These vices are deliberately developed whereas bias is generally unconscious. It may also be mentioned here that bias is relative to time and place because it is generally connected with values and traditions. As our values and traditions change, bias also changes. We must admit that the old bias we had against the backward classes is almost disappearing today. It is very difficult to exactly locate bias.
Of course, there are certain ways by which we can find out, if not exactly, to some extent, whether a particular authority has acted impartially and without bias. Third, we have to see whether the act or decision of an authority can be justified before an impartial tribunal or not. Through the application of these tests, we can make some rough estimate as to whether a decision is free or not from bias.
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All bias is not bad. If we are developing a constructive bias, as for example, bias in favour of preferential service to the Jawans or to their widows or bias in favour of backward classes, it is a healthy bias and need be developed and acquired. In the field of law, unhealthy bias is eliminated to the extent that principles of justice provide that:. These principles are now well established in administrative adjudication but in pure administration, we have yet to devise these types of principles.
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In our country too, this clause is getting well established. It is for the same reason that High Court Judges are not allowed to practice before the same court after their retirement and the Comptroller and Auditor General is not allowed to hold any remunerative post after retirement. Before setting the paper, the paper-setter should inform the Registrar by name, if he is the author of a book or booklet on the subject and the standard for which the book can be utilised.
Thus every effort is made to eliminate the possibilities of bias entering into decision-making and in the execution of policy. There already exist several provisions and safeguards for the eradication of bias in decision-making but still we can mention a few more which can help officials in arriving at rational decisions. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures, unnecessary rules and regulations open up the gates for bias.
It is, therefore, essential that improved rules of procedure should be established and useless regulations be weeded out.